Advisory circular 91-45c
77. Certificate of Authorization
While many of the activities associated with aviation events frequently require waivers, parachuting or skydiving demonstration jumps do not require waivers. As provided for in FAR Part 105, some of these jumps do require an FAA Form 77111, Certificate of Waiver or Authorization.
A. FAR 105.15 is applicable to jumps over or into congested areas or open-air assemblies of persons. FAR 105.19 is applicable to jumps in or into control zones with functioning control towers. FAA Form 7711-1 is required for any jump over or into a congested area.
1. The drift-over provision of FAR 105.15: Permits a jumper to exit an aircraft over something other than a congested area, and with a fully deployed parachute, drift over a congested area or open-air assembly of persons, and land in an open area. Under these circumstances an FAA Form 7711-1 is not required.
2. The key to determine if an authorization is required are the words "over or into." In other words, the drift-over provision does not permit any jump that results in a landing into a congested area or open-air assembly of persons unless the parachutist has obtained an FAA Form 7711-1.
78. Parachute Associations/Organizations
A. Parachutists who are not members of a recognized parachute organization or the participating branch of a national Aero club and who wishes to participate in a demonstration or exhibition jump over or into a congested area must present satisfactory evidence of the necessary experience, knowledge, and skill equivalent to that required by the United States Parachute Association (USPA).
1. If the parachutist is unable to provide this information, the FAA inspector-in-charge may require a demonstration jump (not over a congested area) as a prerequisite before approving the request.
2. The USPA has adopted its own safety rules and licensing standards for parachutists, instructors and jumpmasters. The USPA has pledged to implement a policy of self-policing to assist the FAA in avoiding conflicts with other airspace users and to maintain a high level of safety. Toward this end, the USPA has supplied every FAA FSDO with a brochure of its rules and safety programs and have offered their assistance anytime the FAA encounters problems with a particular club or has questions regarding parachuting.
79. Parachutists Competence
A. The competence of parachutist is extremely important when evaluating the suitability of a landing site.
1. Holders of USPA Class C and D licenses have proven themselves to be highly skilled. Anyone holding such a license who has actively participated in the sport within the last 12 months should be competent to participate in any jump where the separation criteria meets or exceeds that established in a Level One landing area. (See paragraph 80.A.1.)
2. Persons holding a USPA Class D license with a current exhibition PRO rating have demonstrated the additional skills that are necessary to permit exhibition demonstrations in accordance with the separation criteria established in a Level Two landing area. (See paragraph 80.A.2.)
3. USPA exhibition ratings are issued to members who have a Class D license and who have accomplished 10 successive jumps into a 10-meter (32 ft.) diameter target area in accordance with the following criteria:
a. All landings must be made standing up.
b. The size of the canopy used during the exhibition certification determines the canopy limitation allowed in actual demonstration jumps (i.e., smallest canopy demonstrated).
c. Demonstration jumps must be witnessed by either a safety and training advisor (SATO) or by an instructor/examiner (I/E), and at least two other spectators/witnesses.
d. USPA issues the added exhibition rating with an expiration date 12 months from the certification date. Members are renewed on the basis of continued demonstration of the original certification requirements.
80. Landing Areas
A. USPA divides landing areas into tow distinct categories, depending on the demonstrated competency of the parachutist.
1. Level One: Parachutists who hold a USPA Class C or D license must select a landing area that permits the jumper to land no closer than 50 feet from any spectator and does not involve passing over persons on the surface at an altitude of less than 250 feet.
2. Level Two: Parachutists who hold a USPA Class D license with an exhibition (Pro) rating and who certify that they shall use a steerable square main and reserve canopy, shall be permitted to exit over or into a congested area. The selected landing area must permit the jumper to land no closer than 15 feet from any spectator and does not involve passing over persons on the surface at an altitude of less than 50 feet.
81. Alternate Landing Areas
A. Regardless of the experience of the parachutists, "runoffs" or "escape areas" should be considered. Small target areas may be acceptable when a suitable alternate landing area is available in the event of unexpected conditions.
Special provisions for parachute demonstration jumps
A. For jumps into congested areas, two-way radio communication between the aircraft airlifting the parachutists and the landing area shall be continuously maintained for all jumps.
B. Provisions shall be made by the holder of FAA Form 7711-1 to keep spectators out of the landing area.
C. The parachute jump shall not be conducted when the ceiling is less than 2,500 feet and the visibility less than 5 miles.
D. Use the appropriate landing area provision bas on the qualification of the jumper. Landing area will be divided into two distinct categories:
1. Parachutists who hold a USPA Class C or D license, or are members of a DOD-sanctioned parachute demonstration team, must select a landing area that will permit the jumper to land not closer than 50 feet from any spectator and will not involve passing over persons on the surface at an altitude of less than 250 feet.
2. Parachutists who hold a USPA Class D license with and exhibition rating, or are members of a DOD-sanctioned parachute demonstration team, who certify that they will use a steerable square main and reserve canopy, will be permitted to exit over of into a congested area. The selected landing area must not permit the jumper to land closer than 15 feet from any spectator and will not involve passing over persons on the surface at an altitude of less than 50 feet.
E. The holder of FAA Form 7711-1 shall brief the pilot in command of the aircraft and the jumpers on the terms of this authorization.
F. The FAA inspector may wish to develop a provision that directs the pilot in command of the holder of FAA Form 7711-1 to use a specific Air Traffic Control facility and frequency.
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